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[International Journal] Investigation of voltage reduction in nanostructure-embedded organic light-emitting diodes
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Jin Yeong Kim , Woo Hyun Kim , Do Hong Kim , Kyung Cheol Choi

Organic Electronics, January , 2014

Published

vol 15, no 1, pp 260-265

Abstract
We investigated the reduction of the operating voltage in organic light-emitting diodes containing WO3 nanoislands. The thickness of the organic layer and the periodicity of the nanoislands were varied in order to quantitatively analyze the electrical changes. The thickness of the N,N′-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) layer was varied from 150 nm to 600 nm, and various periodic nanoislands of 300 nm, 330 nm, and 370 nm were fabricated. Two geometric factors, which are the effective length and effective area, influence the operating voltage. The effective length is determined by the relative thickness of the nanoislands compared with the organic thickness, and the reduction of the operating voltage is linearly proportional to the relative thickness. The effective area is a nonlinear function of periodicity, and the voltage is reduced as the periodicity decreases.